Life isn’t always easy for the Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Measuring just 19 inches in length, it is the second smallest penguin species in the world, after the appropriately named little penguin. Being so small, it has a number of predators. In the sea, it is prey for sharks, fur seals and sea lions. And on land, it has to watch out for snakes, rice rats, cats, Galapagos hawks, short-eared owls and even crabs.
This fragile penguin species lives only on the Galapagos Islands, with 90% living on Fernandina Island and Isabela Island, both in the western part of the archipelago. Estimates place the total population at between 1,500 and 1,800, making it the rarest penguin species in the world. It is also classified as endangered.
As well as being one of the smallest and rarest penguin species, the Galapagos penguin is also a geographic anomaly. It is the only penguin species to live north of the equator, thanks to the population on the northern tip of Isabela Island, which just creeps over the dividing line between the two hemispheres.
Galapagos penguins are able to survive on the equator thanks to the cooling effects of the Humboldt and Cromwell Currents, which allow them to live at a tropical latitude normally unsuitable for penguins. But heat remains a problem.
When it gets too hot on land, the penguins cool off in the water whenever possible. Sometimes, however, they need to stay on land to care for their chicks, so they have developed alternative ways to cool down. They can stretch out their flippers and lean forward to cast a shadow on their own feet, through which they can get rid of excess heat. Unlike most penguins, they can also pant to regulate their temperature. As for their eggs, these are kept in crevices deep in the rocks, away from the direct heat of the sun.
Read more about the Galapagos Penguin at Galapagos Conservation Trust.
Other Galapagos Wildlife
American Flamingo / Blue-Footed Booby / Flightless Cormorant / Frigatebirds: Great and Magnificent / Galapagos Fur Seal / Galapagos Giant Tortoise / Galapagos Hawk / Galapagos Sea Lion / Land Iguana / Marine Iguana / Nazca Booby / Red-Footed Booby / Santa Fe Land Iguana / Waved Albatross
The Main Galapagos Islands and Visitor Sites
Baltra Island / Bartolomé Island / Chinese Hat Islet / Eden Islet / Española Island / Fernandina Island / Floreana Island / Genovesa Island / Isabela Island / Mosquera Islet / North Seymour Island / Rábida Island / San Cristóbal Island / Santa Cruz Island / Santa Fe Island / Santiago Island / South Plaza Island
Galapagos Travel Guide
Galapagos Tours & Cruises / Galapagos & Machu Picchu Tours / Galapagos & Amazon Tours / Galapagos FAQ / Galapagos Weather / Galapagos Accommodations / Top Galapagos Activities by Land or by Sea / Galapagos Wildlife Calendar / Galapagos Packing List / Galapagos Blog Posts / Galapagos Islands Map